Organisms reproduce asexually in many ways. In prokaryotes, which include eubacteria and archaebacteria, asexual reproduction happens by cell division. In eukaryotes, which include single-celled and multicellular organisms, asexual reproduction is a more involved process. It often involves a type of cell division called mitosis (my-TOH-sis). Mitosis produces genetically identical cells.
Binary fission (By-nuh-ree FISH-uhn) is the form of asexual reproduction in prokaryotes. It is a type of cell division. During binary fission, the parent organism splits in two, producing two new cells. Genetically, the new cells are exactly like the parent cell.
Budding. During budding, an organism develops tiny buds on its body. A bud grows until it forms a new full-sized organism that is genetically identical to the parent. Budding is the results of mitosis. Eukaryotes such as single-celled yeasts and multicellular hydras reproduce by budding.
Fragmentation in multicellular or colonial organisms is a form of asexual reproduction where an organism is split into fragments. Each of these fragments develop into mature, fully grown individuals that are clones of the original organism. The splitting may or may not be intentional. It may occur due to man-made or natural damage by the environment or predators. This kind of organism may develop specific organs or zones that may be shed or easily broken off. If the splitting occurs without the prior preparation of the organism, both fragments must be able to regenerate the complete organism for it to function as reproduction. Fragmentation as a method of reproduction is seen in many organisms such as cyanobacteria, molds, lichens, many plants, and animals like sponges, flatworms, some annelid worms, and sea stars. Parthenogenesis means the growth and development of an embryo or seed without fertilization by a male. Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in some plants, invertebrates (e.g. water fleas) and some vertebrates (e.g., lizards, snakes, and some fish), where it can be used for reproduction in the absence of males. Animals that can reproduce through parthenogenesis are more likely to settle in isolated habitats like oceanic islands, as only a single (female) member of the species has to reach the habitat.
Spore. A spore is basically a reproductive cell that can grow into a new cell through mitotic cell division. Spores are stored in special spore cases until they are ready to be released. If conditions are favorable, they will grow into new individual cells. Bread mold reproduce in this manner.
Vegetative Reproduction: Plant Propagation. Plant propagation is the process of increasing the number of plants of a particular species.Propagation can be via sexual or asexual means. Over the years, horticulturalists have developed asexual propagation methods that use vegetative plant parts. This allows plants to be created in ways that nature cannot duplicate.