How do sex cells differ from body cells?
Before sexual reproduction can take place, each parent produces sex cells. Sex cells have half of the genetic information that body cells have. thus, when the genetic information from two parents combines, the offspring have a full set of genetic information. The offspring will have the same total number of chromosomes as each of its parents.
In body cells, most chromosomes are found in pairs that have the same structure and size. These homologous chromosomes (huh-MAHL-uh-guhs KRO-muh-sohmz) carry the same genes. A homologous chromosome pair may have different versions of the genes they carry. One chromosome pair is made up of sex chromosomes. Sex chromosomes control the development of sexual characteristics. In humans, these chromosomes are called X and Y chromosomes. Cells with a pair of every chromosome are called diploid (DIP-loyd). Many organisms, including humans, have diploid body cells.